Science & Technology

Ghostly Boson Clouds Could Solve the Mystery of Dark Matter

Astrophysics Space Dark Matter Concept

The hunt for gravitational waves, ripples in house and time attributable to main cosmic cataclysms, might assist clear up one of the Universe’s different burning mysteries — boson clouds and whether or not they’re a number one contender for darkish matter.

Researchers are utilizing highly effective devices, like the superior Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO), superior Virgo, and KAGRA, that detect gravitational waves as much as billions of light-years away to find potential boson clouds.

Boson clouds, made up of ultralight subatomic particles which might be nearly inconceivable to detect, have been instructed as a doable supply of darkish matter — which accounts for about 85 p.c of all matter in the Universe.

Now a serious new worldwide research carried out in the LIGO-Virgo-KAGRA collaboration and co-led by researchers from The Australian Nationwide College (ANU), gives one of the greatest leads but to seek out these subatomic particles by trying to find gravitational waves attributable to boson clouds circling black holes.

Dr. Lilli Solar, from the ANU Centre for Gravitational Astrophysics, stated the research was the first all-sky survey in the world tailor-made to search for predicted gravitational waves coming from doable boson clouds close to quickly spinning black holes.

Dr. Lilli Solar is on the hunt for boson clouds — a key contender for darkish matter. Credit score: Tracey Nearmy/ANU

“It’s nearly inconceivable to detect these ultralight boson particles on Earth,” Dr. Solar stated.

“The particles, in the event that they exist, have extraordinarily small mass and infrequently work together with different matter — which is one of the key properties that darkish matter appears to have. Dark matter is materials that can’t be seen immediately, however we all know that darkish matter exists as a result of of the impact it has on objects that we are able to observe.

“However by trying to find gravitational waves emitted by these clouds we could possibly observe down these elusive boson particles and probably crack the code of darkish matter. Our searches might additionally enable us to rule out sure ultralight boson particles that our theories say might exist however really don’t.”

Dr. Solar, additionally an Affiliate Investigator at the ARC Centre of Excellence for Gravitational Wave Discovery (OzGrav), stated gravitational wave detectors allowed researchers to look at the vitality of quickly rotating black holes extracted by such clouds in the event that they exist.

“We imagine these black holes entice an enormous quantity of boson particles of their highly effective gravity area, making a cloud corotating with them. This delicate dance continues for tens of millions of years and retains producing gravitational waves that hurtle via house,” she stated.

Whereas the researchers haven’t but detected gravitational waves from boson clouds, Dr. Solar stated gravitational wave science had “opened doorways that have been beforehand locked to scientists.”

“Gravitational-wave discoveries not solely present details about mysterious compact objects in the Universe, like black holes and neutron stars, additionally they enable us to search for new particles and darkish matter,” she stated.

“Future gravitational wave detectors will definitely open extra potentialities. We can attain deeper into the Universe and uncover extra insights about these particles.

“For instance, the discovery of boson clouds utilizing gravitational wave detectors would carry essential insights about darkish matter and assist advance different searches for darkish matter. It could additionally advance our understanding of particle physics extra broadly.”

In one other important breakthrough, the research additionally shed extra mild on the probability of boson clouds current in our personal galaxy by making an allowance for their ages.

Dr. Solar stated the energy of any gravitational wave is determined by the age of the cloud, with older ones sending out weaker alerts.

“The boson cloud shrinks because it loses vitality by sending out gravitational waves,” Dr. Solar stated.

“We discovered {that a} specific kind of boson cloud youthful than 1,000 years isn’t more likely to exist wherever in our galaxy, whereas clouds which might be as much as 10 million years previous will not be more likely to exist inside about 3,260 light-years from Earth.”

Reference: “All-sky seek for gravitational wave emission from scalar boson clouds round spinning black holes in LIGO O3 knowledge” by The LIGO Scientific Collaboration, the Virgo Collaboration, the KAGRA Collaboration: R. Abbott, H. Abe, F. Acernese, Ok. Ackley, N. Adhikari, R. X. Adhikari, V. Ok. Adkins, V. B. Adya, C. Affeldt, D. Agarwal, M. Agathos, Ok. Agatsuma, N. Aggarwal, O. D. Aguiar, L. Aiello, A. Ain, P. Ajith, T. Akutsu, S. Albanesi, R. A. Alfaidi, A. Allocca, P. A. Altin, A. Amato, C. Anand, S. Anand, A. Ananyeva, S. B. Anderson, W. G. Anderson, M. Ando, T. Andrade, N. Andres, M. Andrés-Carcasona, T. Andrić, S. V. Angelova, S. Ansoldi, J. M. Antelis, S. Antier, T. Apostolatos, E. Z. Appavuravther, S. Appert, S. Ok. Apple, Ok. Arai, A. Araya, M. C. Araya, J. S. Areeda, M. Arène, N. Aritomi, N. Arnaud, M. Arogeti, S. M. Aronson, Ok. G. Arun, H. Asada, Y. Asali, G. Ashton, Y. Aso, M. Assiduo, S. Assis de Souza Melo, S. M. Aston, P. Astone, F. Aubin, Ok. AultONeal, C. Austin, S. Babak, F. Badaracco, M. Ok. M. Bader, C. Badger, S. Bae, Y. Bae, A. M. Baer, S. Bagnasco, Y. Bai, J. Baird, R. Bajpai, T. Baka, M. Ball, G. Ballardin, S. W. Ballmer, A. Balsamo, G. Baltus, S. Banagiri, B. Banerjee, D. Bankar, J. C. Barayoga, C. Barbieri, B. C. Barish, D. Barker, P. Barneo, F. Barone, B. Barr, L. Barsotti, M. Barsuglia, D. Barta, J. Bartlett, M. A. Barton, I. Bartos, S. Basak, R. Bassiri et al., 30 November 2021, Astrophysics > Excessive Vitality Astrophysical Phenomena.
arXiv:2111.15507

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