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How Dietary Fat Affects Stem Cell Differentiation

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How Dietary Fat Affects Stem Cell Differentiation

You’re what you eat in terms of fats, report scientists from McGovern Medical College at The College of Texas Well being Science Heart at Houston (UTHealth) within the journal Science Advances.

Dietary fat are transformed into lipids, which make up the membranes that encompass all dwelling cells.

The kind of fats an individual consumes could decide whether or not stem cells are transformed into bone cells or fats cells, mentioned Ilya Levental, Ph.D., the research’s senior creator and assistant professor of integrative biology and pharmacology at McGovern Medical College at UTHealth.

“The fat that we eat resembling ldl cholesterol, unsaturated fat and fish oil turn out to be robustly included into the membranes of our cells and dramatically change the composition and performance of these membranes,” mentioned Levental, a Most cancers Prevention & Analysis Institute of Texas (CPRIT) Scholar.

To check their idea, Kandice Levental, Ph.D., the research’s lead creator and assistant professor of integrative biology and pharmacology at McGovern Medical College, measured the lipid content material of mesenchymal (connective tissue) stem cells as they remodeled into bone cells or fats cells.

The Leventals discovered that bone cell membranes had distinctive compositions, being notably excessive in a kind of dietary fats, omega-3 polyunsaturated fats. This fats can also be known as DHA and is essentially the most ample element of fish oil, a standard dietary complement. Most significantly, they discovered that including such fish oil fat to mesenchymal stem cells pushed them to remodel into osteoblasts (bone-forming cells) versus adipocytes (fat-storing cells).

This elementary analysis helps clarify why fish oil would possibly profit folks with osteoporosis, a bone weakening dysfunction. Extra broadly, it might present perception into the numerous connections between dietary fat and a wide range of medical outcomes, together with wholesome getting old and coronary heart illness.

“Our investigations counsel a normal mechanism by which dietary fat have an effect on mobile physiology by reworking of membrane lipidomes, biophysical properties and signaling,” the authors wrote.

Publication: Kandice R. Levental, et al., “ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids direct differentiation of the membrane phenotype in mesenchymal stem cells to potentiate osteogenesis,” Science Advances 08 Nov 2017: Vol. 3, no. 11, eaao1193; DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aao1193

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