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Meta-Analysis Finds That Omega-3 Supplements Improve Cardiovascular Outcomes – Type Matters

Omega-3 Food Sources

Discount in cardiovascular danger was biggest for eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) alone reasonably than mixture of EPA and one other omega-3 fatty acid.

For many years, there was nice curiosity in whether or not omega-3 fatty acids can decrease charges of cardiovascular occasions. In 2018, outcomes from the Discount of Cardiovascular Occasions with Icosapent Ethyl-Intervention Trial (REDUCE-IT) have been revealed within the New England Journal of Drugs and confirmed {that a} excessive dose of a purified ethyl ester of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) in sufferers at elevated cardiac danger considerably decreased cardiovascular occasions. Outcomes from the trial led to the US Meals and Drug Administration, Well being Canada, and European Medicines Company approval of the prescription drug icosapent ethyl for decreasing cardiovascular danger in sufferers with elevated triglycerides, in addition to updates to worldwide tips. However prior and subsequent research of omega-3 fatty acid dietary supplements that mix EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) have had combined outcomes.

Investigators from Brigham and Girls’s Hospital and elsewhere performed a scientific evaluate and meta-analysis of 38 randomized managed trials of omega-3 fatty acids. General, they discovered that omega-3 fatty acids improved cardiovascular outcomes. Outcomes, now revealed in eClinical Drugs, confirmed a considerably larger discount in cardiovascular danger in research of EPA alone reasonably than EPA+DHA dietary supplements.

“REDUCE-IT has ushered in a brand new period in cardiovascular prevention,” mentioned senior writer Deepak L. Bhatt, MD, MPH, the chief director of Interventional Cardiovascular Applications on the Brigham and lead investigator of the REDUCE-IT trial. “REDUCE-IT was the biggest and most rigorous modern trial of EPA, however there have been different ones as effectively. Now, we are able to see that the totality of proof helps a sturdy and constant advantage of EPA.”

Bhatt and colleagues carried out a meta-analysis of 38 randomized medical trials of omega-3 fatty acids, together with trials of EPA monotherapy and EPA+DHA remedy. In complete, these trials included greater than 149,000 members. They evaluated key cardiovascular outcomes, together with cardiovascular mortality, non-fatal cardiovascular outcomes, bleeding, and atrial fibrillation. General, omega-3 fatty acids decreased cardiovascular mortality and improved cardiovascular outcomes. The trials of EPA confirmed greater relative reductions in cardiovascular outcomes in comparison with these of EPA+DHA.

The researchers observe that there are essential organic variations between EPA and DHA — whereas each are thought-about omega-3 fatty acids, they’ve completely different chemical properties that affect their stability and power of the impact that they’ll have on ldl cholesterol molecules and cell membranes. No trials to this point have studied the results of DHA alone on cardiovascular outcomes.

“This meta-analysis gives reassurance in regards to the position of omega-3 fatty acids, particularly prescription EPA,” mentioned Bhatt. “It ought to encourage investigators to discover additional the cardiovascular results of EPA throughout completely different medical settings.”

Reference: “Impact of Omega-3 Fatty Acids on Cardiovascular Outcomes: A Systematic Evaluation and Meta-Analysis” by Safi U. Khan, Ahmad N. Lone, Muhammad Shahzeb Khan, Salim S. Virani, Roger S. Blumenthal, Khurram Nasir, Michael Miller, Erin D. Michos, Christie M. Ballantyne, William E. Boden and Deepak L. Bhatt, 8 July 2021, eClinical Drugs.
DOI: 10.1016/j.eclinm.2021.100997

REDUCE-IT was sponsored by Amarin. Brigham and Girls’s Hospital receives analysis funding from Amarin for the work Bhatt did because the trial chair and because the worldwide principal investigator. The current evaluation was unfunded.

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