Mega-Scale Quantum Effects
Science & Technology

Quantum Effects at Mega-Scale: The Universe May Have Quantum Properties

Mega-Scale Quantum Effects

An article of the IKBFU Director of Institute of Physics, Arithmetic and Informational Expertise, Artyom Yurov and the Institute’s Affiliate Professor, Valerian Yurov was lately revealed in European Bodily Journal. The scientists have launched their calculations, in keeping with which the Universe could have quantum properties.

Artyom Yurov defined:

“To start with, let’s bear in mind what quantum physics is. Maybe that is essentially the most wonderful phenomenon identified to individuals. When scientists began learning atoms for the primary time, they observed that the whole lot works “the wrong way up” within the microcosm. For instance, in keeping with quantum principle, an electron could current in a number of locations concurrently.

Attempt to think about your cat concurrently mendacity on the couch and consuming from its bowl that’s within the different nook of the room. The cat just isn’t both right here or there, however in each locations concurrently. However the cat is there solely BEFORE you look at it. The second you begin staring at it, it adjustments the place to EITHER the bowl OR the couch. You might ask, in fact, that if the cat acts so bizarre solely when not noticed by us, so how do we all know that it truly acts this fashion? The reply is straightforward: math! If we’re to try to collect statistical details about us trying at the cat (wanted to estimate the variety of circumstances when the cat was on the couch and when — close to the bowl), we received’t have any info. This proves to be inconceivable if we take into account the cat being EITHER close to the bowl OR on the couch. Nicely, it doesn’t work like that with cats, however works high quality for electrons.

After we observe this particle, it actually seems in a single place and we will file that, however when we don’t observe it, it have to be in a number of locations at as soon as. For instance, that is what they imply in chemistry lessons once they speak about electron clouds. No surprise poor kids by no means perceive this. They simply memorize … ”

Professor Artyom Yurov Credit score: Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal College

Sure, the cat just isn’t some electron, however why? Cats encompass elementary particles, like electrons, protons, and neutrons. All of the particles act the identical when measured on the quantum degree. So why a cat can’t be in two locations concurrently?

And the opposite query is: what’s so magical about our skill to “observe”? As a result of after we don’t “observe,” the thing is being “smeared” all around the universe, however the second we glance at it — it’s gathered in a single place! Nicely, physicists don’t say “gathered,” they are saying “wave operate collapsed,” however these good phrases truly imply “gathered” in a single place because of commentary! How can we try this?

“Firstly, the reply to those complicated questions appeared at the top of the final century, when such a phenomenon as decoherence was found. It seems that certainly, any object is situated in a number of locations at as soon as, in very many locations. It appears to be unfold all through the universe. But when the thing comes into interplay with the surroundings, even collides with one atom of a photon, he instantly “collapses.” So there are not any mystical skills to trigger quantum collapse by commentary — this is because of interplay with the surroundings, and we’re merely a part of this surroundings.

Professor Valerian Yurov. Credit score: Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal College

Secondly, there isn’t any absolute collapse as such. The collapse occurs within the following method: if earlier than interacting with the surroundings the thing was “smeared” over two locations, (we use “two locations” to simplify, in actuality it may be smeared over tons of of 1000’s of locations) however in reality, the thing presents 99.9999% (and lots of, many nines after) of the time in a single place, and a small remaining a part of time within the second. And we observe it as being in a single and solely place! Every thing occurs very quickly and the larger an object is, the quicker the “collapse.” We can’t understand it or in some way register, as such gadgets merely don’t exist. And so they can’t be created.”

In keeping with Artyom Yurov, a very long time in the past his pal and co-author from Madrid, professor Pedro Gonzalez Diaz (sadly, lengthy deceased) has introduced an concept of the Universe having quantum properties.

Prof. Yurov mentioned: “Again within the days I used to be skeptical concerning the concept. As a result of it’s identified that the larger an object is the quicker it collapses. Even a micro organism collapses extraordinarily quick, and right here we’re speaking concerning the Universe. However right here Pedro requested me: “What the Universe interacts with?” and I answered nothing. There may be nothing however the Universe and there’s nothing it will possibly work together with. Which, theoretically permits as to consider it as of a quantum object.”

Nonetheless, the impetus for writing a scientific article concerning the quantum nature of the Universe was not a lot the thought of Pedro Gonzalez Diaz because the one which got here out in 2007 scientific publication (pdf) by Corridor, Deckert, and Wiseman, who described these quantum miracles within the language of classical mechanics, including some “quantum forces” in it.

That’s, every location of the thing is described as a separate “world,” however it’s believed that these “worlds” act on one another with actual “forces.” I have to say that the thought of “many worlds” has existed for a very long time and belongs to Hugh Everett. The concept of describing quantum results by introducing extra forces additionally exists for a very long time and belongs to David Bohm, however Corridor, Deckert, and Wiseman had been in a position to mix these concepts and construct a significant mathematical mannequin.

“And when Valerian and I noticed this work in 2007,” says Artyom Yurov, “it appeared to us that the mathematical formalism utilized in it permits us to look very in a different way at what Pedro mentioned at the time. The essence of our work is that we took the equation that cosmologists use to explain the Friedmann-Einstein Universe, added “quantum forces” in keeping with the HDV scheme, and investigated the options obtained. We managed to get some wonderful outcomes, specifically, it’s potential that some puzzles of cosmology can obtain surprising protection from this facet. However a very powerful factor is that such a mannequin is testable. ”

It’s too early to speak about what such a formulation of the query could result in. The principle should even be confirmed by experiments (i.e., observations). However now it’s apparent that scientists have come near what can basically change our understanding of the universe.

Reference: “The day the universes interacted: quantum cosmology with no wave operate” by A. V. Yurov and V. A. Yurov, 18 September 2019, The European Bodily Journal C.
DOI: 10.1140/epjc/s10052-019-7261-y

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