Why Is COVID-19 So Hard to Treat? A Comprehensive Review of What We Know

Why Is COVID-19 So Hard to Treat? A Comprehensive Review of What We Know

A complete overview into what we find out about COVID-19 and the way in which it features suggests the virus has a singular infectious profile, which explains why it may be so laborious to deal with and why some individuals expertise so-called “long-COVID,” battling important well being points months after an infection.

There may be rising proof that the virus infects each the higher and decrease respiratory tracts – in contrast to “low pathogenic” human coronavirus sub-species, which usually settle within the higher respiratory tract and trigger cold-like signs, or “excessive pathogenic” viruses comparable to those who trigger SARS and ARDS, which usually settle within the decrease respiratory tract.

Moreover, extra frequent multi-organ impacts, and blood clots, and an uncommon immune-inflammatory response not generally related to different, related viruses, imply that COVID-19 has developed a uniquely difficult set of traits.

Whereas animal and experimental fashions indicate an excessively aggressive immune-inflammation response is a key driver, it appears issues work in a different way in people: though irritation is an element it’s a distinctive dysregulation of the immune response that causes our our bodies to mismanage the way in which they battle the virus.

This will likely clarify why some individuals expertise “long-COVID” and endure extreme lung injury after an infection.

Ignacio Martin-Loeches, Scientific Professor in Trinity School Dublin’s Faculty of Medication, and Guide in Intensive Care Medication at St James’s Hospital, is a co-author of the overview simply revealed in main medical journal, The Lancet.

He stated:

“The emergence of extreme acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus two (SARS-CoV-2), which causes COVID-19, has resulted in a well being disaster not witnessed because the 1918 Spanish flu pandemic. Tragically, hundreds of thousands world wide have died already.

“Regardless of worldwide deal with the virus, we’re solely simply starting to perceive its intricacies. Based mostly on rising proof we suggest that COVID-19 ought to be perceived as a brand new entity with a beforehand unknown infectious profile. It has its personal traits and distinct pathophysiology and we’d like to bear in mind of this when treating individuals.

“That doesn’t imply we must always abandon current best-practice remedies which might be primarily based on our information of different human coronaviruses, however an unbiased, gradual meeting of the important thing COVID-19 puzzle items for various affected person cohorts – primarily based on intercourse, age, ethnicity, pre-existing comorbidities – is what’s want to modify the prevailing therapy tips, subsequently offering probably the most sufficient care to COVID-19 sufferers.”

Reference: “The COVID-19 puzzle: deciphering pathophysiology and phenotypes of a brand new illness entity” by Marcin F Osuchowski, DVM; Martin S Winkler, MD; Tomasz Skirecki, MD; Sara Cajander, MD; Prof Manu Shankar-Hari, PhD; Gunnar Lachmann, MD; Prof Guillaume Monneret, PhD; Prof Fabienne Venet, PhD; Prof Michael Bauer, MD; Prof Frank M Brunkhorst, MD; Sebastian Weis, MD; Alberto Garcia-Salido, MD; Matthijs Kox, PhD; Prof Jean-Marc Cavaillon, DrSc; Florian Uhle, PhD; Prof Markus A Weigand, MD; Stefanie B Flohé, PhD; Prof W Joost Wiersinga, MD; Raquel Almansa, PhD; Amanda de la Fuente, MSc; Prof Ignacio Martin-Loeches, MD; Christian Meisel, MD; Thibaud Spinetti, PhD; Joerg C Schefold, MD; Catia Cilloniz, PhD; Prof Antoni Torres, MD; Prof Evangelos J Giamarellos-Bourboulis, MD; Ricard Ferrer, MD; Massimo Girardis, MD; Prof Andrea Cossarizza, MD; Prof Mihai G Netea, MD; Prof Tom van der Ballot, MD; Jesús F Bermejo-Martín, MD and Ignacio Rubio, PhD, 6 Might 2021, The Lancet: Respiratory Medication.
DOI: 10.1016/S2213-2600(21)00218-6

The overview article was produced by the European Group on Immunology of Sepsis (EGIS) through which Professor Martin-Loeches is one of the funding members. EGIS is a multidisciplinary group of scientists and medical doctors with particular curiosity in extreme an infection in sufferers admitted to ICU.

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